2019-04-24 by NAHB
Section 8 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that “Everyone has the right to be secure against unreasonable search or seizure.” This is a fundamental legal right that protects Canadians from intrusive and unreasonable searches. If police violate this right in order to obtain evidence, it often means that that evidence is inadmissible in court.
If you want to pursue training to eventually become a police officer or work in a related profession after your police foundations course, then you will need to have an understanding of Canada’s search and seizure laws. Here’s a brief look at what search and seizure laws are and what they could mean for your career.
Students in Police Foundations Courses Know That Warrants Are Often Required
While the Charter prohibits “unreasonable search and seizure,” it does not clarify what “unreasonable” means. Instead, that has been left up to the courts to decide. Generally, it has been interpreted to mean that police officers need to obtain a warrant before they can search or seize a person’s property, or else they need the property owner’s consent to perform a search. You’ll learn more about search warrants, the Charter, and how they could affect your career in your police foundations program.
For police to search private property, they usually need to obtain a search warrant beforehand
There are exceptions, however, where police can search property without a warrant or consent. For example, police can enter a home in order to prevent someone from being seriously injured or killed. Likewise, if police have reason to believe that evidence relating to a serious offence might be lost or destroyed during the time it takes to obtain a warrant, they can also conduct a search without a warrant.
Search and Seizure Laws Also Apply to Other Security-Related Professionals
Search and seizure laws don’t just affect police officers. By studying police foundations courses, you may also choose to pursue other professions, such as being a security guard or customs officer. Search and seizure laws apply differently to security guards and customs officers than they do to police officers. For one, security guards are private citizens, whereas police officers are agents of the state. As such, security guards do not have the right to search and seize a person’s private property nor can they obtain a warrant to do so. Only police can obtain a search warrant.
However, there are times when security guards may be able to perform searches. For example, a bag search may be required for anybody who wants to gain entrance to an event. Since the event is being held on private property, security guards employed by the property owner have the right to search entrants’ bags as a condition of entry. While people can refuse to have their bags searched, that also gives security guards the right to refuse them entry.
Customs officers, on the other hand, have much broader search powers than police typically do. This is because the Supreme Court has ruled that individuals have a lower reasonable expectation of privacy at border crossings than in other situations. For example, customs officers can typically search a person’s vehicle, luggage, and electronic devices without a warrant when they are crossing the border. Unlike police officers, customs officers do not need reasonable and probable grounds to conduct a search.
Customs officers have much broader search powers than police officers do
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2019-01-23 by NAHB
One of the central principles law enforcement professionals can rely on during and after their training is the standard of proof, which uses available evidence to prove a legal claim or argument in a courtroom. In Canada, the burden of proof lies with the government, which means that the prosecutor must prove their case against the defendant for the crime being adjudicated.
Since the standard of proof is split into three different categories, it can be hard to understand how they all work. If you’re interested in police foundations, read on to learn about the standard of proof, and how it relates to your career in law enforcement.
Students in Police Foundations Training Know the Importance of Prima Facie
Prima facie is a Latin phrase which means the equivalent of “at first sight”. It is a standard of proof in both criminal and civil law which indicates, upon examination, that there is sufficient evidence to corroborate or support a case in court.
This does not mean, however, that it should be assumed that the defendant is guilty just because they’re accused of something. After the Crown has established a prima facie case, because the burden of proof is on the prosecutor, the defendant does not need to prove their innocence, but rather establish consistent, reasonable doubt about the evidence being presented, and whether or not it indicates their guilt.
Police foundations training can help you learn and understand judicial terminology
Police Foundations Explores the Meaning of ‘Beyond a Reasonable Doubt’
One of the most well-known aspects of the standard of proof is what’s called ‘beyond a reasonable doubt’ (BARD). This is also one of the most common standards of proof in law, and means that there must be almost or absolute certainty based on the evidence that someone is guilty of committing a crime.
As students taking police foundations courses know, ‘beyond a reasonable doubt’ is not something that can be based on sympathy, prejudice, or feelings, but instead is something that must be a logical conclusion. If, for instance, a defendant is on trial for robbing a store, it’s not enough to say that you know they are guilty beyond a reasonable doubt because of the colour of their shirt. Instead, you should rely on definitive evidence such as a security recording showing the robbery.
Proof on a Preponderance of the Evidence
Professionals with police foundations training know that the standard of proof can be applied differently in criminal cases than in civil cases. Also called the ‘balance of probabilities,’ the proof on a preponderance of the evidence is used in civil trials to determine that a specific conclusion based upon the evidence is more probably or likely than the argument of the other legal party.
For example, a defendant is taken to court over a dispute with their neighbour. The neighbour claims that the defendant has damaged the fence they share by running it over with their lawnmower, but the evidence shows that there are actually lawnmower tracks coming from the neighbor’s side of the fence. This means that the balance of probabilities is in favour of the defendant. While this form of the standard of proof operates in a ‘binary’ system—either it is true or false—it is still important to be able to distinguish between the two.
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2018-12-19 by NAHB
Police officers perform a very wide range of duties, including patrolling neighbourhoods, interviewing suspects, and mediating conflicts. Because of this variety and unpredictability, and also because of the high level of trust placed in police officers, there are certain personal qualities that are very important for anyone hoping to enter a career in law enforcement.
If you’re considering becoming a police officer, you may have wondered what personal qualities you’ll need to succeed in this exciting and fulfilling career. Here are five of the most important.
1. Police Officers Need to Be Empathetic and Compassionate
Police officers spend every day working with the public, often in unusually difficult and stressful circumstances. They also spend a good deal of time working with vulnerable populations, including those with addiction and mental health issues. For these reasons and many others, compassion and empathy are essential qualities for police officers. This means the ability to understand what someone else is feeling in a given situation, to share those feelings, and to act on them appropriately in order to offer the assistance they need. By engaging with the public with empathy and compassion, police officers are often able to de-escalate heated situations, to help victims in times of distress, and to build a rapport with the communities they serve.
2. Police Officers Should Be Team Players
Being a police officer involves frequent coordination with other law enforcement officers and departments, as well as court officials, paramedics, social workers, and more. Whether following orders, taking on a leadership role, or coordinating among several officers or departments, police work is highly cooperative, so those hoping for a job in law enforcement should be good team players.
Police regularly work with other first responders like fire fighters and paramedics
3. Critical Thinking Is Essential for Careers in Law Enforcement
Police officers deal with an incredibly varied range of situations in their work. To understand what’s happened or happening in these situations, police officers are often required to sort through a large amount of information, including statements and evidence that can be potentially irrelevant, misleading, or contradictory. In order to sort through this information effectively and arrive at the truth, police officers need to combine the skills they learn in their police foundations courses with excellent critical thinking skills, and they need to be able to employ them even in fast-paced or high-stress situations.
4. Adaptability and Flexibility Are Important When You Become a Police Officer
When you become a police officer, you can expect to work in ever-changing conditions. From the laws you’re enforcing, to the guidance you receive in how best to enforce those laws, to the problems and the people you encounter on the streets, as a police officer you’ll deal with a variety of shifting factors and need to be flexible and adaptable in order to stay current with those changes.
5. Integrity Is a Fundamental Quality for Police Officers
Public trust is essential for police officers to do their work. The public needs to have a high level of trust in police officers in order to feel comfortable, safe, and confident when reporting crimes, allowing police into their homes, or revealing private or sensitive information in the course of an investigation. In order to cultivate and maintain this trust, integrity is a fundamental quality for all police officers. Integrity means following through and performing your duties to the best of your abilities, honestly and thoroughly, even when you’re not being monitored or rewarded.
Integrity is an essential quality for police officers who depend on public trust
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2018-03-14 by NAHB
Canada’s police forces, border control authorities, and security sector are where many motivated individuals go to seek a rewarding career. What you might not know is that many of them choose to do so later in life. These organizations can often have high requirements of applicants, but substantial life experience and work done in the community are often recognized and respected by those in charge of recruitment.
So, can mature students take police foundations courses to prepare for a career in one of these areas? The answer is a resounding yes. Here’s why police foundations can often be an excellent fit.
Students Benefit from Police Foundations Courses at All Ages
There is no age limit for admission to the police foundations courses offered by the National Academy of Health & Business (NAHB), a fact which recognizes the potential to be found in many older applicants.
Many mature students who enroll in police foundations training might even find that their previous work and life experience could actually be a very valuable asset. Experience working with others, navigating difficult situations, and meeting challenges can all give mature students a unique perspective when preparing for a career as a security guard, police officer, private investigator, or one of the many other career paths that police foundations training can lead to.
Mature Graduates of Police Foundations Programs Are Able to Apply for Many Different Roles
The range of opportunities open to graduates of a police foundations program is considerable. That’s because in addition to their being no age limit for applying to police foundations programs, age limits are also not a common occurrence when applying for work in this field.
Those who complete police foundations training are well-equipped to move into their own area of interest, including becoming a security guard, private investigator, or police officer. In fact, many regulatory bodies like the provincial registration process for professionals like private investigators do not involve any age limit.
Mature graduates should note that a high number of Canadian police forces, ranging from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) to large urban police forces like the Toronto Police Service explicitly state that there is no upper age limit when applying to join the force. In fact, the average age of applicants for the RCMP is 28, and over the last 10 years, 24 applicants older than 50 have been successful. The only age restrictions in place are that applicants should be at least 18 years old to become a police officer in Ontario, and 19 years old to join the RCMP.
Applicants Should Bear in Mind Physical Requirements
Of course, no matter your age, the physical requirements for this role will still be challenging. In fact, the OPC emphasizes that both diet and exercise are important elements to consider. When preparing for this career path, it recommends “Swimming, weight training, running, and working out in the gym…” In addition, the OPC states that all applicants should “Pay attention to what you eat as well. You may want to include in your diet a combination of lean protein, whole grains, foods rich in essential fatty acids, and plenty of fruits and vegetables…”
It’s because of this that top police foundations programs help students develop a fitness program, and even include instruction in nutrition into the curriculum. All of this can help to prepare candidates for the rigours of the application process, and help students of all ages prepare for the career they’ve always wanted.
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2016-09-21 by NAHB
Police work is increasingly focusing on partnerships with communities in order to produce better-informed and better-connected police forces as well as safer and more cohesive neighborhoods. Community based policing focuses on partnerships with community organizations, not-for-profits, local politicians, community leaders, private businesses, and local media outlets. These partnerships involve circulating information to maintain the safety of the local community.
Read on for a brief introduction to the practice of community based policing.
Students in Police Foundations Courses Might Know That Community Policing Is a Philosophy
Community based policing isn’t necessarily a program or set of guidelines that are implemented in the day-to-day activities of policing, but rather an overarching philosophy that informs conduct. Community policing is a philosophy and strategy that promotes partnerships and friendly interactions with community organizations and community members. These partnerships utilize problem-solving techniques to address public safety issues including social disorders and crime.
One example of a community based policing solution includes ‘Citizen’s Patrol’ groups that can observe interactions and assist police in addressing suspicious activity. These types of community organizations can be joined while you’re still in your police foundations program!
Community based policing focused on partnering with different community leaders
Teamwork Is Imperative for Successful Police Foundations Training and Community Policing
A huge part of the community policing philosophy is the recognition that effective policing can’t be done alone; teamwork is essential for safe communities. As you’ll soon learn throughout your studies, teamwork in an important part of any police officer’s career—so much so that you’ll even learn effective team building techniques as part of your program.
Community policing also involves teamwork, but on a much bigger scale. Community partnerships with local politicians and organizations mean that all members of the community work together to find solutions for public safety issues. These partnerships help develop the public’s trust in the police force by making forces more visible in the community and by having community leaders openly endorsing police work. This work also helps improve public trust by ultimately making police work more effective, therefore demonstrating that police forces are working hard to make their neighborhoods even safer.
Effective Community Policing Addresses the Causes of Crime
When you graduate from police foundations courses, keep in mind that community policing doesn’t necessarily look to solve crimes. Rather than seeking to address crime only after it occurs, community policing looks to respond to underlying conditions that give rise to deviance and crime. Community policing tries to touch on only things it can have an immediate impact on. One such thing is increased guardianship for children or students that may not have a support system in their life. By acting as a mentor to a young child, or inspiring the next generation to avoid illicit substances, you can make a tangible difference throughout your community by employing a community based approach.
Integrating police as guardians in the community is a great way to prevent crime
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2016-06-15 by NAHB
The Criminal Code of Canada lays out the proper procedures regarding criminal offenses in the country. The code contains 28 parts, one of which details the extensive specifics of arrest warrants and helps to ensure that people who are suspected of committing a crime can be legally taken in for questioning. During your police foundations program at the National Academy of Health and Business, you’ll complete courses in everything from The Criminal Code, Federal and Provincial Statutes, to Police Procedures in which you’ll begin to learn about how arrest warrants operate and how police employ them to keep our communities safe.
The following is a brief introduction on how arrest warrants operate in Canada, and what students in police foundations need to know.
Police Foundations Students Learn How to Obtain Arrest Warrants
When it is thought that a certain individual has participated in a crime, an affidavit—a written statement that is given under oath—is submitted to a judge containing specific information that links a certain suspect with the crime that he or she is suspected of committing. A vague description will not be enough to obtain an arrest warrant; the description must be particular. For instance, the affidavit cannot just give a general description of someone who resembles the person who is being arrested, it must instead provide detailed information about how exactly that person is connected to the crime, such as eye-witness accounts, physical evidence, or camera recordings. This information is meant to establish what is legally called probable cause; a case based on evidence for the high probability that the suspect did indeed commit the crime.
Police Diploma Holders Know Warrants Are Often Only Valid In Certain Places
Usually, arrest warrants are only valid within the province where the judge signs them into effect. But other times, if a crime is more serious and involves violence, Canada-wide warrants can be issued. With a Canada-wide warrant, a suspected criminal can be arrested by any police force member in the country.
If you graduate from a police diploma program and decide to make your career in the field of police work, you will learn that if you stop someone who has an arrest warrant in another province and you feel it is serious enough to take the suspect in, you sometimes can. After that, you will need to contact the police in the issuing province and proceed from there.
Police Foundations Programs Graduates May Use Arrest Warrants To Prevent Travel
Graduates of a police foundations program may go on to a rewarding career as a customs or immigration officer. As you complete your studies, you’ll learn that when there is a warrant out for a traveler’s arrest, it can often prevent them from travelling outside of the country the arrest warrant is issued in. Airports security staff and border security staff make sure to check police databases when citizens move through borders or attempt to board an airplane and will flag those who have outstanding warrants. In fact, in late 2015 all border services officers got access to the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC), which allowed them screen all travellers—this led to 1,800 arrests in the first month alone.
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2016-03-09 by NAHB
Earning a police foundations diploma is personally rewarding, since this line of work can provide you with the opportunity to make a real difference in the lives of others. Whether you choose to work behind the wheel of a patrol car, respond to domestic disputes, or work with teenagers at a local youth center, your role will focus on upholding the safety and security of Canadian citizens. While police officers are required to manage difficult situations daily, they also reap the benefits associated with helping others.
If you’re planning to enroll in a police foundations college, you’ll receive the training needed to launch a wide variety of law enforcement careers—some may even take you across the country! Read on for a closer look at the responsibilities of municipal, provincial, and federal police officers.
Police Foundations Training Could Lead to a Career With The Municipal Police
Municipal police officers are required to perform a wide range of duties. Most of these revolve around protecting citizens and property. If you decide to become a municipal police officer, you will have plenty of opportunity to move up in the ranks, and to work in different areas of your city.
Once you become a municipal police officer, you’ll be responsible for patrolling neighborhoods, responding to calls, working at the police station and more. While on duty, municipal police officers also perform clerical work, such as filling out various forms and writing reports. They sometimes testify in municipal court for ongoing investigations, make arrests and issue citations. Police foundations training will provide you with working knowledge of municipal laws, criminology, and much more in order to prepare you for a career as a police officer in your community.
The primary function of a municipal police officer is to keep the peace in the community
Work With The Provincial Police After Completing Police Foundations Courses
Once you’ve completed your police foundations courses, you might find work on a provincial police force like the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP). Provincial police provide services to the entire province and they offer specialized support to municipal police forces in dealing with some crimes.
As a provincial police officer, you would have the chance to work on province-wide investigations. Rather than patrolling city streets, you would be responsible for law enforcement on provincial highways. Provincial police officers often team-up with other provincial agencies, such as the Ministry of Transportation and Ministry of Natural Resources to enforce highway safety and conservation laws.
Working with provincial police like the OPP will have you enforcing highway laws and much more
Apply For Work With The RCMP After Your Police Foundations Training
Working with Canada’s national police force means you would be responsible for ensuring public safety and security country-wide. RCMP officers are also required to enforce the law, conduct investigations, create community awareness and more. In your police foundations courses, you’ll examine criminal statistics on a national level and gain a solid understanding of Canadian legal acts and regulations. Receiving this knowledge is a great starting point and will prepare you for a career as an RCMP officer.
New recruits with the RCMP begin their career by performing patrolling and law enforcement duties that are similar to those of municipal officers. However, because this police force is nation-wide, there are opportunities for many specialized jobs down the line, such as working on drug enforcement investigations or administrative positions. The RCMP has locations throughout Canada, so if you’re considering working with the RCMP, you might be asked to relocate.
RCMP officers are highly-respected by law enforcement agencies all over the world
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2015-05-27 by NAHB
The main responsibility of all police officers is to keep order and peace between people within a community. The definition of what constitutes “order” is generally outlined by national and provincial laws.
Most people know that the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) is Canada’s national police force. The RCMP also serve as the official police force for various Canadian provinces and territories. In fact, the only provinces in Canada that have their own provincial police forces are Ontario, Quebec and a portion of Newfoundland.
A good police officer knows the history of a community and the laws which govern it, which is why it’s so important for students pursuing law enforcement careers to learn about the history of policing in Canada. Read on for a quick, introductory guide.
Canada’s Earliest Form of Law Enforcement
The first signs of any Canadian legal traditions can be traced back all the way to 1651, when Quebec City adopted a watchman system modelling that of various cities in France. During the same time, Ontario (formerly known as Upper Canada) fashioned its own legal system after English traditions, establishing a constabulary and a watch-and-ward system. While both Upper Canada and Quebec City followed different law enforcement traditions for several years, after 1759, the English system was imposed on French areas.
In 1835, Toronto established a police department based on England’s Metropolitan Police Act and both Quebec and Montreal followed the city’s lead shortly after in 1838 and 1840. And finally, provincial police forces were established for Eastern Canada’s rural areas in 1867.
Development of the Royal North West Mounted Police
Students enrolled in police foundations courses know that the North West Mounted Police (NWMP, known today as the RCMP) was officially created in 1873 by the Parliament of Canada. The officers that made up the police force were tasked with the responsibility of halting aggression from American whiskey traders in Alberta. The North West Mounted Police force was responsible for protecting Aboriginal people, as well as managing prairie fires and fighting disease.
Experts holding a police foundations diploma know that the Klondike Gold Rush of 1896 created new opportunity and much more support for the NWMP officers, since they were assigned the task of patrolling the Northern areas. The NWMP were granted the title “Royal North West Mounted Police” for their thirty years of service during this era.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Every graduate of law enforcement and police foundations programs will recognize February 1, 1920 as the day that the Royal North West Mounted Police force was officially renamed to become the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Between the years of 1932 and 1938, the RCMP consisted of approximately 2350 officers, who were policing Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. This number grew substantially after World War II, and in 1950 the RCMP became responsible for protecting Newfoundland and British Columbia as well.
Modern Day Mounties
In the 1970s the Royal Canadian Mounted Police force evolved considerably. In fact, not only did RCMP responsibilities expand in areas including airport policing, VIP security and drug enforcement, but new members were also accepted. In 1974, women were granted acceptance to join the RCMP and become uniformed members.
These days, the RCMP is responsible for a very wide range of tasks in various areas, such as organized crime, terrorism, economic crimes, illicit drugs and border crimes. As of 2013, the RCMP has over 23,000 employees across the country.
Are you interested in pursuing a career in law enforcement? Click here for more information on the police foundations program offered at NAHB.
2015-02-11 by NAHB
Author Malcolm Gladwell in his novel “Outliers” writes about a gathering of criminologists in 1940s New York. The finest minds in the detective world are gathered to understand the motives and nature of the Con Edison bomber.
In the nick of time it seems, a young psychiatrist by the name of James Brussel forwards a theory. “The bomber,” he said, “would be of Polish decent, unmarried, and when you catch him he will be dressed in a buttoned double-breasted suit.”
Sure enough, the police arrested the man, George Metesky, and he was indeed dressed how Brussel described.
This story was cited on CBS’s hit show Criminal Minds, which has been famous for bringing the practice of criminology into the public sphere. However, the truth of the matter is that much of the criminology seen on television is the work of elaborate guessing and suspenseful story-telling. Students taking police foundations training to enter the police force will discover for themselves that criminology is, in fact a science – one which requires professional training and in-depth knowledge of criminal patterns.
The Purpose of Criminal Profiling
Criminology is also known as criminal profiling, which means typecasting a criminal’s behavioural patterns in order to solve a crime. Criminal profiling is used to catch criminals who have committed crimes of all types – whether they are single or serial cases. These crimes could range from robberies, arson and serious threats, to crimes such as assault and fraud.
One of the first steps to profiling a criminal is to form a personality profile. Police may determine specific characteristics and traits of the criminal, which will allow others to recognize him or her. After determining the personality profile, police will assess how to approach confronting and interviewing the suspect. Police will consider:
- The suspect’s strengths, weaknesses
- What interviewing techniques would be appropriate
- Trial and courtroom strategy
Reviewing the Evidence
Before an investigation can truly begin, law enforcement professionals must retrieve evidence from both the scene of the crime and any witnesses. This means investigating the crime scene for clues which could hint at either who the criminal is or their behaviour pattern. Graduates of police foundations courses know that it is not until police begin bringing witnesses into the station for interviews that they can start piecing together a profile of who the perpetrator may be.
Interviews and Trial
Once witnesses have given police enough information to begin narrowing down potential suspects, law enforcers can begin the interview process. The process of interviewing will help determine who the perpetrator may be – after which the interrogation process can begin. An interview can reveal important information about the suspect’s thoughts and behaviour patterns, and in some cases may lead to an admission of guilt.
When enough evidence is gathered, the police have the right to make an arrest and charge the suspect. The profile built around the criminal leading up to the charges all help create a trial strategy which law enforcers and legal professionals will use to convict the criminal in court.
What makes you interested in learning about criminology at police foundations school?